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Archaeologists near Luxor, Egypt, have discovered 30 sealed wooden coffins with mummies inside, some of which belonged to ancient Egyptian priests.
Here are photos of the findings. Five mummies dating to 4, years ago had cholesterol buildup in their arteries, hinting that humans have been susceptible to heart disease since ancient times.
Two mummies have been unearthed in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, the cemetery holding the tomb of King Tut and other Egyptian royalty.
For the first time since , two pyramids built by the ancient Egyptians, including the unique "Bent Pyramid," are being opened to the public, according to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.
Live Science. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. But why preserve the body? The Egyptians believed that the mummified body was the home for this soul or spirit.
If the body was destroyed, the spirit might be lost. The ka, a "double" of the person, would remain in the tomb and needed the offerings and objects there.
The ba, or "soul", was free to fly out of the tomb and return to it. And it was the akh, perhaps translated as "spirit", which had to travel through the Underworld to the Final Judgment and entrance to the Afterlife.
To the Egyptian, all three were essential. After death, the pharaohs of Egypt usually were mummified and buried in elaborate tombs. Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment, and occasionally, common people.
However, the process was an expensive one, beyond the means of many. For religious reasons, some animals were also mummified. The sacred bulls from the early dynasties had their own cemetery at Sakkara.
Baboons, cats, birds, and crocodiles, which also had great religious significance, were sometimes mummified, especially in the later dynasties.
Ancient writers, modern scientists, and the mummies themselves all help us better understand the Egyptian mummification process and the culture in which it existed.
Much of what we know about the actual process is based on the writings of early historians such as Herodotus who carefully recorded the process during his travels to Egypt around B.
Present-day archaeologists and other specialists are adding to this knowledge. The development of x-rays now makes it possible to x-ray mummies without destroying the elaborate outer wrappings.
By studying the x-rays or performing autopsies on unwrapped bodies, experts are learning more about diseases suffered by the Egyptians and their medical treatment.
A better idea of average height and life span comes from studying the bones. The interest in mummies as medicine was based on the supposed medicinal properties of bitumen, a type of asphalt from the Dead Sea.
It was thought mummies were embalmed with bitumen, but that was rarely the case; most were embalmed with resins. Perhaps the best-known mummy in modern history is King Tutankhamun , commonly known as King Tut.
His tomb and mummified body were discovered in by British archaeologist Howard Carter. It was an exhilarating find yet destined to be overshadowed by several unexplained deaths.
The most effective way to send them to a permanent demise is to set them on fire. That may change as Hollywood releases new mummy movies with spine-chilling storylines and unnerving special effects.
Central Rappahannock Regional Library. Science Museum, London. Mummy as a Drug. The Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. Accidental mummies: Mexican villagers are preserved.
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The tomb of Tjay, designated TT23 , is one of only two known which show the wrapping of a mummy Riggs Another text that describes the processes being used in latter periods is Herodotus ' Histories.
Written in Book 2 of the Histories is one of the most detailed descriptions of the Egyptian mummification process, including the mention of using natron in order to dehydrate corpses for preservation.
By utilizing current advancements in technology, scientists have been able to uncover a plethora of new information about the techniques used in mummification.
A series of CT scans performed on a 2,year-old mummy in revealed a tool that was left inside the cranial cavity of the skull.
This discovery helped to dispel the claim within Herodotus' works that the rod had been a hook made of iron. While attempting to replicate Egyptian mummification, Brier and Wade discovered that removal of the brain was much easier when the brain was liquefied and allowed to drain with the help of gravity , as opposed to trying to pull the organ out piece-by-piece with a hook.
Through various methods of study over many decades, modern Egyptologists now have an accurate understanding of how mummification was achieved in ancient Egypt.
The first and most important step was to halt the process of decomposition, by removing the internal organs and washing out the body with a mix of spices and palm wine.
The internal organs were also dried and either sealed in individual jars, or wrapped to be replaced within the body. This process typically took forty days.
After dehydration, the mummy was wrapped in many layers of linen cloth. Within the layers, Egyptian priests placed small amulets to guard the decedent from evil.
Resin was also applied to the coffin in order to seal it. The mummy was then sealed within its tomb, alongside the worldly goods that were believed to help aid it in the afterlife.
Aspergillus niger , a hardy species of fungus capable of living in a variety of environments, has been found in the mummies of ancient Egyptian tombs and can be inhaled when they are disturbed.
Mummification is one of the defining customs in ancient Egyptian society for people today. The practice of preserving the human body is believed to be a quintessential feature of Egyptian life.
Yet even mummification has a history of development and was accessible to different ranks of society in different ways during different periods.
There were at least three different processes of mummification according to Herodotus. They range from "the most perfect" to the method employed by the "poorer classes".
The most expensive process was to preserve the body by dehydration and protect against pests, such as insects. Almost all of the actions Herodotus described serve one of these two functions.
First, the brain was removed from the cranium through the nose; the gray matter was discarded. Modern mummy excavations have shown that instead of an iron hook inserted through the nose as Herodotus claims, a rod was used to liquefy the brain via the cranium, which then drained out the nose by gravity.
The embalmers then rinsed the skull with certain drugs that mostly cleared any residue of brain tissue and also had the effect of killing bacteria.
Next, the embalmers made an incision along the flank with a sharp blade fashioned from an Ethiopian stone and removed the contents of the abdomen.
Herodotus does not discuss the separate preservation of these organs and their placement either in special jars or back in the cavity, a process that was part of the most expensive embalming, according to archaeological evidence.
The abdominal cavity was then rinsed with palm wine and an infusion of crushed, fragrant herbs and spices; the cavity was then filled with spices including myrrh , cassia , and, Herodotus notes, "every other sort of spice except frankincense ", also to preserve the person.
The body was further dehydrated by placing it in natron , a naturally occurring salt, for seventy days. Herodotus insists that the body did not stay in the natron longer than seventy days.
Any shorter time and the body is not completely dehydrated; any longer, and the body is too stiff to move into position for wrapping. The embalmers then wash the body again and wrapped it with linen bandages.
The bandages were covered with a gum that modern research has shown is both waterproofing agent and an antimicrobial agent. At this point, the body was given back to the family.
These "perfect" mummies were then placed in wooden cases that were human-shaped. Richer people placed these wooden cases in stone sarcophagi that provided further protection.
The family placed the sarcophagus in the tomb upright against the wall, according to Herodotus. The second process that Herodotus describes was used by middle-class people or people who "wish to avoid expense".
In this method, an oil derived from cedar trees was injected with a syringe into the abdomen. A rectal plug prevented the oil from escaping.
This oil probably had the dual purpose of liquefying the internal organs but also of disinfecting the abdominal cavity.
By liquefying the organs, the family avoided the expense of canopic jars and separate preservation. The body was then placed in natron for seventy days.
At the end of this time, the body was removed and the cedar oil, now containing the liquefied organs, was drained through the rectum.
With the body dehydrated, it could be returned to the family. Herodotus does not describe the process of burial of such mummies, but they were perhaps placed in a shaft tomb.
Poorer people used coffins fashioned from terracotta. The third and least-expensive method the embalmers offered was to clear the intestines with an unnamed liquid, injected as an enema.
The body was then placed in natron for seventy days and returned to the family. Herodotus gives no further details. In Christian tradition, some bodies of saints are naturally conserved and venerated.
In addition to the mummies of Egypt, there have been instances of mummies being discovered in other areas of the African continent. The mummified remains of an infant were discovered during an expedition by archaeologist Fabrizio Mori to Libya during the winter of — in the natural cave structure of Uan Muhuggiag.
Uncovered alongside fragmented animal bone tools was the mummified body of an infant, wrapped in animal skin and wearing a necklace made of ostrich egg shell beads.
Professor Tongiorgi of the University of Pisa radiocarbon-dated the infant to between 5,—8, years old. A long incision located on the right abdominal wall, and the absence of internal organs, indicated that the body had been eviscerated post-mortem , possibly in an effort to preserve the remains.
Johan Binneman in The mummies of Asia are usually considered to be accidental. The decedents were buried in just the right place where the environment could act as an agent for preservation.
This is particularly common in the desert areas of the Tarim Basin and Iran. Mummies have been discovered in more humid Asian climates, however these are subject to rapid decay after being removed from the grave.
Mummies from various dynasties throughout China 's history have been discovered in several locations across the country. They are almost exclusively considered to be unintentional mummifications.
Many areas in which mummies have been uncovered are difficult for preservation, due to their warm, moist climates.
This makes the recovery of mummies a challenge, as exposure to the outside world can cause the bodies to decay in a matter of hours.
An example of a Chinese mummy that was preserved despite being buried in an environment not conducive to mummification is Xin Zhui.
Also known as Lady Dai, she was discovered in the early s at the Mawangdui archaeological site in Changsha. Her corpse was so well-preserved that surgeons from the Hunan Provincial Medical Institute were able to perform an autopsy.
Among the mummies discovered in China are those termed Tarim mummies because of their discovery in the Tarim Basin.
The dry desert climate of the basin proved to be an excellent agent for desiccation. For this reason, over Tarim mummies, which are over 4, years old, were excavated from a cemetery in the present-day Xinjiang region.
Mair claims that " the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid " with "east Asian migrants arriving in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin around 3, years ago", while Mair also notes that it was not until that the Uighur peoples settled in the area.
As of , at least eight mummified human remains have been recovered from the Douzlakh Salt Mine at Chehr Abad in northwestern Iran. Later isotopic research on the other mummies returned similar dates, however, many of these individuals were found to be from a region that is not closely associated with the mine.
It was during this time that researchers determined the mine suffered a major collapse, which likely caused the death of the miners.
In , a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. Also known as Princess Ukok, the mummy was dressed in finely detailed clothing and wore an elaborate headdress and jewelry.
Alongside her body were buried six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey. The Ice Maiden has been a source of some recent controversy.
The mummy's skin has suffered some slight decay, and the tattoos have faded since the excavation. Some residents of the Altai Republic , formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union , have requested the return of the Ice Maiden, who is currently stored in Novosibirsk in Siberia.
Another Siberian mummy, a man, was discovered much earlier in His skin was also marked with tattoos of two monsters resembling griffins , which decorated his chest, and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm.
Philippine mummies are called Kabayan Mummies. They are common in Igorot culture and their heritage. The mummies are found in some areas named Kabayan , Sagada and among others.
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